Saturday, July 20, 2019
Globalisation - Australia and Asia Essay examples -- essays research p
Edward Said states, Ã¢â¬Å"No one today is purely one thing. Labels like Indian, or woman, or Muslim, or American are no more than starting points.Ã¢â¬ SaidÃ¢â¬â¢s idea illustrates the evolution of relations between communities as a result of globalization, and the understanding and recognition of other cultures through the interpretation of cultural borders. In this essay I will analyse to what extent globalisation is affecting identity formation, and also the roles of cultural borders in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. I will assess whether through globalisation of the media we are in fact overcoming cultural borders and traditional stereotypes and in turn forging a mutual respect between foreign communities, or as Said argues (Said cited in Crary & Mariani1990), whether globalisation and Western media dominance through peripheral and Third World societies is perpetuating Western superiority, Ã¢â¬Å"the ever rolling march of commodification, the old form of globalisation, fully in keeping with the west, which is simply able to absorb everybody else within its driveÃ¢â¬ (Hall 1991), and spreading hegemony, with little or selected representation of local culture. I will be using studies of Australia/Asian relations to illustrate these ideas. In order to apply these ideas to Australian and Asian relations, we must first establish how we some have come to realise that Ã¢â¬Å"no one today is purely one thingÃ¢â¬ , as opposed to years gone by. As Said (1978) and others have shown, Europe, from which AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s culture originates, has traditionally viewed Asia and Asians with contempt and inferiority, and Ã¢â¬Å"one of its deepest and most reoccurring images of OtherÃ¢â¬ (Said 1978, p.1). Asians have been Ã¢â¬Å"repeatedly characterised by some western texts as alternatively lazy, stupid, mindless, barbaric and untrustworthy [which has] served as a guarantee of the Ã¢â¬Ësuperiority of the Briton, American, German or Australian over many yearsÃ¢â¬ (Birch, Schirato & Srivastava 2001, p.5). As Said (1978, cited in Crary & Mariani1990) and Birch et al. (2001) show, Asians have been represented as inferior and essentially different to their colonising European counterparts. Australians, too, have looked (and argu ably continue look) upon Asian people (and in light of this essay any other people) as essentially different to themselves. As DÃ¢â¬â¢Cruz and Steele (2003) demonstrate, Asians have been ostracized in Australian societ... ...ernational Circulation of U.S. Theatrical Films and Television ProgrammingÃ¢â¬â¢. In G. Gerbner and M. Siefert (eds) World Communications: A Handbook. New York: Longman. Hall S (1991). Ã¢â¬ËThe Local and the GlobalÃ¢â¬â¢. In King AD (ed) Culture Globalization and the World System. London: Macmillan. Jin D Y (2005). Ã¢â¬ËIs Cultural Imperialism Over: Growing U.S. Dominance vs. Emerging Domestic Cultural MarketÃ¢â¬â¢. The University of Illinois. Patience A & Jacques M (2003). Ã¢â¬ËRethinking Australian Studies in Japanese Universities: Towards a New Area Studies for a Globalising WorldÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Australian Studies, No 77, pp. 43-56. Rizvi F (1996). Ã¢â¬ËRacism, Reorientation and the Cultural Politics of Asia-Australia RelationsÃ¢â¬â¢. In Vasta E & Castles S (eds) The Teeth are Smiling: The Persistence of Racism in Multicultural Australia. St Leonards: Allen and Unwin. Said E (1978). Ã¢â¬ËIntroductionÃ¢â¬â¢. In Orientalism. London: Routledge. Straubhaar J (1991). Ã¢â¬ËBeyond Media Imperialism: Asymmetrical Independence and Cultural ProximityÃ¢â¬â¢. In Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 8 (1), 39-70. Tunstall J (1977). The Media are American: Anglo-American Media in the World. New York: Columbia University Press.